Dynamics of flood-water infiltration and groundwater recharge was investigated using Vadose zone Monitoring systems which were installed under stream bed of ephemeral rivers and reservoirs.
Data that was collected by the VMS during each flood enabled direct calculation of the percolation flow velocities and infiltration fluxes. (Dahan et al., 2007; Dahan et al., 2008; Dahan et al., 2009; Amiaz et al., 201).
Water percolation and tracer migration through the vadose zone were studied through a multi-tracer experiment.
Frequent sampling of the vadose zone pore-water at multiple points by the VMS allowed establishment of tracer breakthrough curves at various depths (Dahan et al., 2009. VZJ).
A vadose zone monitoring system that was installed under a gas station allowed accurate monitoring of the impact of remediation activities on the subsurface hydraulic and chemical conditions including: (1) temporal variation of the sediment water content, and (2) chemical and isotopic composition of the percolating water.
Results from each wetting cycles were used to improve the following wetting cycles in order to optimize the vadose zone conditions for microbial degradation of BTEX while minimizing leaching of contaminants to the groundwater.
A study on enhance the biodegradation of perchlorate in the deep vadose zone was conducted through pilot scale experiment in a site that is heavily contaminated by perchlorate.
Monitoring of the direct impact of enhanced percolation on the actual hydraulic and chemical conditions in the vadose zone was achieved using a vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) which measured continuously the vadose zone water content and allowed frequent sampling of the sediment pore water across the entire vadose zone of the site (40 m).
Land use impact on groundwater quality was investigated using Vadose zone Monitoring Systems which were installed across the vadose zone underlying various agricultural, urban and industrial setups.
The quality and quantity of the percolating water was measured continuously over several years and provided an early warning to potential pollution of groundwater by the various land uses.